A decisive step was taken in the seventeenth century by Johannus Kepler in Germany, a renowned mathematician, the founding father of modern astronomy.
Protestant of confession and thus little concerned by the recommendations of Rome which was in a blind alley, Kepler did not seek to “save the phenomena” while maintaining at any cost the circle and the geocentric theory to ensure the harmony of the world.
His laws described the movement of planets around the Sun, specifying in particular that the planetary orbits were ellipses  whose Sun occupied one of the foci. From 1609, the ellipse replaced the circle in astronomy.
By systematically studying the planet Mars, Kepler empirically gave the laws that bear his name and that allow us in the twenty-first century to explore the solar system or to reach the moon.